An accurate, rational and carefully balanced diet in diabetes is a key factor in maintaining a stable systematic compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. Unfortunately, there are currently no effective medications that can completely relieve a person from diabetes, so it is the diet, along with the correct daily regimen and, if necessary, taking medication, can help the patient live a quiet life andwithout fear of health.
Doctors have known about the need for a diet in diabetes mellitus for a long time - it was pre-insulin medical food that was the only effective mechanism to fight the problem. Diet is especially important for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, where the chances of decompensation coma and even death are high. For diabetics with the second type of disease, nutritional therapy is usually prescribed for weight correction and a more predictable sustained course of the disease.
- The basic concept of a therapeutic diet for any type of diabetes is the so-called bread unit - a theoretical measure of the equivalent of ten grams of carbohydrates. Modern nutritionists have developed special sets of tables for all types of products, showing the amount of XE per 100 grams of product. Every day, a diabetic patient is recommended to take products with a total "value" of 12-24 XE - the dosage is chosen individually, depending on the body weight, age and level of physical activity of the patient.
- Keeping a detailed food diary. All foods consumed should be recorded so that, if necessary, the dietitian makes a correction of the nutritional system.
- Number of moves. Diabetics are recommended to eat 5-6 times. At the same time, breakfast, lunch and dinner should make up 75 percent of the daily ration, the remaining 2-3 snacks - the remaining 25 percent.
- Individualization of nutritional therapy. Modern science recommends the individualization of classical diets, adapting them according to the physiological preferences of the patient, regional factors (a set of local dishes and traditions) and other parameters, maintaining a balance of all the components of a balanced diet.
- Substitution equivalence. If you change your diet, then the selected alternative products should be as interchangeable in terms of calorie content, as well as the ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. The main groups of ingredients in this case include products that contain mainly carbohydrates (1), proteins (2), fats (3) and many ingredients (4). Substitutions are only possible within these groups. If substitution occurs in (4), then nutritionists make adjustments to the composition of the entire diet, while replacing elements from (1), it is necessary to consider equivalence in terms of glycemic index - this can be helped by the XE tables described above. above.
Foods strictly forbidden in diabetes
Modern dietetics, armed with advanced diagnostic methods and research on the effect of substances and products on the body, in recent years has significantly narrowed the list of foods absolutely prohibited for patients with diabetes. At present, dishes based on refined carbohydrates, cakes and sugar, as well as products containing resistant fats and high cholesterol are absolutely contraindicated.
There is a relative ban on white bread, rice and oatmeal, as well as pasta - they can be used in a strictly restricted way. In addition, regardless of the type of diabetes, alcohol is completely contraindicated.
In some cases, strict adherence to a diet for type 2 diabetes helps to fully compensate for carbohydrate metabolism and to avoid medication. For type 1 diabetics and other types of diabetes, nutritional therapy is considered and is an important element of complex problem therapy.
Types of Diabetes Diet
- Classic.This type of nutritional therapy developed in the 1930s and 1940s and is a balanced, albeit strict, diet. Its wonderful representative in internal nutrition is the "Table number 9" with numerous, later variations. This is the type of medical nutrition that is suitable for almost all diabetics with type 1 and 2 diabetes.
- Modern.The principles of individualization and the peculiarities of the mentality of individual social groups have given rise to a variety of modern menus and diets, with less stringent prohibitions on certain types of products and taking into account the new properties discovered in the latter, which made it possible to introduce previously banned products conditionally into the daily diet. The key principles here are the factor of using “protected” carbohydrates that contain a sufficient amount of dietary fiber. However, it should be understood that this type of medicinal food is selected strictly individually and can not be considered as a universal mechanism for compensating for carbohydrate metabolism.
- Low carb diet.Designed primarily for type 2 diabetics with increased body weight. The main principle is to exclude as much as possible the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates, but not to the detriment of health. However, it is contraindicated for children; can also not be used for people with kidney problems (late stage nephropathies) and for diabetics with type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia.
- Vegetarian diets. Experimental studies in the early 20th century have shown that vegan diets with an emphasis on significantly reducing the intake of high-fat foods not only contribute to weight loss, but also lower blood sugar. A large amount of whole vegetation, rich in dietary fiber and fiber, in some cases turns out to be even more effective than the recommended specialized diets, especially since a vegetarian diet implies a significant decrease in the total calorie content of the dietdaily. This, in turn, significantly reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic conditions, is able to act as an independent prophylactic agent and effectively fight against the onset of diabetes.
Below, we see the classic diet menu for type 1 and type 2 diabetics, which is optimal for patients with mild to moderate diabetes. In case of severe decompensation, tendency and hyper- and hypoglycemia, an individualized diet regimen should be developed by a nutritionist taking into account human physiology, current health problems and other factors.
- Proteins - 85-90 grams (sixty percent of animal origin).
- Fat - 75-80 grams (one third of the vegetable base). Carbohydrates - 250-300 grams.
- Free juice - about one and a half liters.
- Salt - 11 grams.
The food system is partial, five to six times a day, the maximum daily value of energy is not more than 2400 kcal.
Meat / cooking fats, spicy sauces, sweet juices, buns, rich soups, creams, pickles and marinades, fatty meats and fish, canning, salted and saturated cheeses, pasta, oatmeal, rice, sugar, jam, alcohol, ice cream and sugar-based cakes, raisins, all raisins and bananas with dates / figs.
Allowed Foods / Dishes:
- Flour products are allowed - rye bread and bran, as well as flavorless flour products. Soups - optimal for medical nutrition are borscht, cabbage soup, vegetable soup, as well as decoction in low-fat soup. Sometimes okroshka.
- Meat. Low fat varieties of beef, veal, pork. Chicken, rabbit, lamb, boiled tongue and liver allowed limited. From fish - any low-fat variety boiled, steamed or roasted without vegetable oil.
- Dairy products. Low-fat cheeses, fermented milk products without added sugar. Limited - 10% sour cream, low-fat or semi-fat cottage cheese. Eat eggs without egg yolk, as a last resort, in the form of omelet.
- Cereals. Oatmeal, pearl barley, beans, buckwheat, yolk, millet.
- Vegetables. Carrots, beets, cabbage, squash, zucchini, eggplants, cucumbers and tomatoes are recommended. Potatoes are limited.
- Snacks and sauces. Salad with fresh vegetables, tomato sauce and low fat, horseradish, mustard and pepper. Limited - squash or other vegetable caviar, vinaigrettes, favorite fish, seafood dishes with a minimum of vegetable oil, low-fat beef jelly.
- Fats - limited vegetables, butter and ghee.
- Various. Sugar-free drinks (tea, coffee, rose soup, vegetable juices), jellies, mousses, fresh non-exotic sweet and sour fruits, compotes. Very limited - honey and cakes with sweeteners.
Weekly indication menu for diabetes mellitus
The individual menu components below are subject to replacement according to the principles of equivalent replacement within the above groups.
- We will have breakfast with two hundred grams of low-fat cheese, to which you can add some berries.
- For the second time we have breakfast with a glass of 1% kefir.
- We have lunch with 150 grams of roast beef, a plate of vegetable soup. For garnish - boiled vegetables in quantities of 100-150 grams.
- Have an afternoon snack with fresh cabbage and cucumber salad, seasoned with a teaspoon of olive oil. The total volume is 100-150 grams.
- We have dinner with grilled vegetables (80 grams) and an average roasted fish weighing up to two hundred grams.
- We will have breakfast with a plate of buckwheat porridge - no more than 120 grams.
- The second time we have breakfast with two medium apples.
- We have lunch with a plate of vegetable broth, 100 grams of boiled beef. You can drink compote food without added sugar.
- Spend an afternoon with a glass of rose broth.
- We have dinner with a bowl of fresh vegetable salad in the amount of 160–180 grams, as well as a lean boiled fish (150–200 grams).
- We have breakfast with casserole with cheese - 200 grams.
- Before lunch, you can have a glass of rosehip juice.
- Lunch with a bowl of cabbage soup, two small fish cakes and a hundred grams of vegetable salad.
- Drink an afternoon snack with a boiled egg.
- We have dinner with a plate of boiled cabbage and two medium-sized meatballs, baked in the oven or steamed.
- We will have breakfast with an omelet with two eggs.
- Before lunch, you can eat a cup of yogurt with minimal or no fat.
- We dine on cabbage soup and two stuffed peppers based on lean meats and whole grains allowed.
- Take an afternoon snack with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese and carrot casserole.
- We have dinner with boiled chicken (two hundred grams each) and a plate of vegetable salad.
- We will have breakfast with a plate of millet porridge and an apple.
- Before lunch, eat two medium oranges.
- Lunch with meat goulash (not more than one hundred grams), a plate of fish soup and a plate of barley.
- Lunch with a plate of salad with fresh vegetables.
- We have dinner with a good portion of boiled lamb vegetables, with a total weight of up to 250 grams.
- We will eat breakfast with a plate of bran-based porridge, a pear can be consumed as a bite.
- It is permissible to eat a soft-boiled egg before dinner.
- We have dinner with a large plate of vegetable stew with the addition of lean meat - only 250 grams.
- Lunch with some allowed fruits.
- We have dinner with a hundred grams of boiled lamb and a plate of vegetable salad in the amount of 150 grams.
- We will eat breakfast with a bowl of low-fat cottage cheese with a small amount of berries - only up to a hundred grams.
- For the second breakfast - two hundred grams of grilled chicken.
- We have lunch with a plate of vegetable soup, a hundred grams of goulash and a bowl of vegetable salad.
- Drink an afternoon snack with a plate of berry salad - up to 150 grams in total.
- We have dinner with a hundred grams of boiled beans and two hundred grams of steamed shrimp.
Questions and Answers
Is it possible with diabetes mellitus to eat: nuts, beets, rice, dates, pomegranate and pumpkin?
Rice is not allowed. Walnuts (walnuts, peanuts, almonds, pine nuts) - it is possible, but in limited quantities (up to 50 grams per day), previously peeled from the shells and other elements. You can use beets for diabetes in boiled form, using it, for example, as an ingredient of vinaigrette - no more than 100 grams per day.Dates are a food with a high glycemic index, but it contains a large amount of nutrients and at the same time does not significantly affect sugar levels, as it contains mainly fructose. You can use it, but in strictly limited quantities, no more than one fruit every few days.
Pumpkin is on the green list for diabetes and can be consumed without special restrictions (the only threshold is the total calorie content in the menu). Pomegranate can be consumed by type 2 diabetics, no more than 50 grams per day.
Is it possible to use honey for diabetes?
Until the 1990s, nutritionists attributed honey to a type of food that was absolutely forbidden for all types of diabetes. Recent studies show that in type 2 diabetics, a small amount of honey (5-7 grams per day) does not cause an increase in blood sugar levels due to the presence of a large amount of fructose in honey. Therefore, it can be consumed, but in limited quantities.
How many fruits can you eat for this disease?
Eat them in moderation, carefully choosing fruits for your diet - so grapes are absolutely contraindicated for you, while apples, oranges or dates can be included in the diet, of course in limited quantities - no more than 1-2 fruits per day.
Is there a low carb diet for type 2 diabetes?
Low water diets are only for diabetics with type 2 diabetes who have problems with overweight. Its basic direction is to reduce carbohydrate intake and reduce the total daily energy value of the diet. As an alternative, modern dietitians often offer vegetarian diets - in some cases, they are even more effective than the classic therapeutic diet food usually recommended by doctors.
Should I follow the diet?
This is a must to support the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. A 6-fold meal plan with a maximum daily energy threshold of 2400 kcal for adults is the best option used anywhere.
Do you need a strict diet for diabetes?
Modern science has significantly expanded the limits of foods allowed for diabetes, which has allowed patients to diversify their daily diet. The whole rigor of the diet consists in calculating the amount of carbohydrates consumed, as well as the total calorie content and frequency of meals, while the individual components of the diet should be replaced equally within their groups.
The baby was born with diabetes. How to feed it?
It's not entirely clear what kind of diabetes we are talking about. If your child has transient neonatal diabetes, then he is curable and, as a rule, you can get rid of him forever. If we are talking about permanent neonatal diabetes, then the whole life of the baby requires the appointment of insulin and, accordingly, therapy throughout life. Both types of disease are quite rare and are a genetic abnormality, sometimes leading to type 1 diabetes in the future.
Have you thought about childhood type 2 diabetes? In any case, your child needs a physiological diet that is absolutely balanced in all aspects, satisfying the energy needs of a growing body. The diet of a child with diabetes does not systematically differ from the diet of a healthy child of the same age with identical parameters of physical development - only harmful dishes obviously based on refined carbohydrates, cakes and sugar, as well as foods containingresistant fats and too much cholesterol are prohibited. There is a relative ban on white bread, rice and oatmeal, as well as pasta - they can be used strictly limited.
Of course, we are not talking about the most serious forms of the disease in the decompensation phase. In any case, to develop an individual diet for a child, you should contact a nutritionist who will take into account the type of diabetes of your child, the characteristics of his body and other factors.